1. If you are selecting a leader for a student organization, honesty is the most important to consider in deciding whom to vote for.
① (开头段)In every historical period, it is an outstanding leader who can guide his followers to make smooth progress. Thus, choosing a leader requires prudent consideration, especially for a student organization and many qualities should be taken into account. Some people may consider that the leadership or personal charming is the most important part of a leader. However, if I were to decide the one suitable for this position, honesty would be kept highest on my list of priorities(首要考虑因素).My reasons and examples are given below.
② (Body 1) First off, honesty is the basic premise(基本前提) of winning over(赢得) other students. Children are taught to be faithful and trustworthy in terms of getting along with(与…相处)others since they were born. Imagine that if finding their leader is lying about the use of funds, for example, won’t these members doubt the authority of this leader, or even the meaning of being honest? Of course they will. If that’s the case, the leader may lose affection of his/her team members gradually, and the morale of this organization would definitely be dented(dent team morale 削弱士气). Hence, to shore up credibility(建立威信), a leader is supposed to show sincere in front of the whole team, and let the team members know the person leading them does have the ability to get activities well-organized, or to back up them when they need.
③ (Body 2)In addition to this, an honest leader will set a good example(做出榜样) for the whole team. As an old saying goes, fish begins to stink at the head(鱼腐头先臭，上梁不正下梁歪). That is, if the leader starts to tell lies for the sake of some certain purposes, you can’t expect how well the whole team perform. For example, in order to avoid punishment, a classmate of mine, also a leader of the street dancing club in my school, lies to his teacher by asserting that they have been rehearsing the show for the New Year’s Eve party (actually most of the rehearsing time has been used to play cards). And few of them takes the show seriously, or take the honor of the team seriously. Regardless of the final performance, this attitude the whole team holds is definitely not what the teacher and the school expect. In contrast, if the leader faced reality frankly and corrected what is wrong in time, things would be totally different.
④ (让步)Sure, some may argue that from time to time white lies have to be told and perhaps other qualities, like communication skills, play a more important role in deciding the candidate for the leader. Indeed, you can’t blame the leader for consoling the members with “good job” when they’ve just finished the worst football match, and it is also acceptable that the leader tells everyone “everything’s OK” after being scolded by their teacher. But the thing is, these white lies are not that necessary. Only if the leader is sincere enough, can s/he foster mutual trust, camaraderie, and team morale as well. It may do more good to honestly telling the team that we are not good enough, but we can be better and better. Similarly, it doesn’t matter(…不是关键) whether the leader is expert at(精通) communicating or other specific skills, being honest matters. With a trustworthy leader, every student of this organization could be themselves with ease(放松自在), so even if difficulties appears when communicating, or even conflicts exist, these problems could be put to rest(解决了难题).
⑤ (结尾段)For the reasons above, honesty, for me, should be the most essential quality to decide a leader for a student organization, even if opposing opinions exist.
2. Many filmmakers make movies base on books. some people prefer to read the book before they watch the movie, while other people prefer to watch the movie before they read the book. which one do you prefer?
① 首先，先看书可以培养你的想象力(Reading first can develop your imagination.)因为你可以在看电影的时候去想象那些书中的角色(you can image the characters in the book and when you watch the movie. )
② 其次，先看书能都更好地帮助与我们去理解电影(It is better for us to appreciate the movie)。电影中往往会缺少一些细节，然而在书中我们可以看到这些细节(subtle nuances)，从而让我们能更好地理解作品的含义。
③ 让步段，读书之前先看电影能够很高效地利用我们有限的时间来了解书的内容。因为看电影不会占用我们太多的时间(not take up our leisure time)，可以利用较短的时间来回顾我们在书籍中看到的内容(review the contents of the book in the best timely manner)，因而加深我们对作品的印象(deepen our impression of the work)。但是，电影对书籍的理解是导演及编剧的主观理解，没有站在客观角度上去理解书籍，会对读者产生误导。
3. Some young people are free in the evenings or have days off at school, which way can bring them the most benefit?
A. to accumulate work experience by a part-time job or volunteering in a community
B. learning to play a sport
C. learning to play a musical instrument
to learn to play a sport
① There is no doubt that playing a sport could bring us physical health as well as mental health, which is essential for individual development. (在晚上空闲时间进行体育运动不仅能强健身体还能带来精神健康。) As we all know, playing sports is regarded as the best way to excise our body and release stress to obtain emotional balance. After a hard day's work，our negative emotions accumulated all day would do harm to our health and efficiency in work, which could be released properly in sports.(一天繁重的工作之后，我们会累积许多的负面情绪，而这些负面情绪会对我们的身体健康和工作效率有很大的危害，所以需要通过体育运动来释放。)+具体论证
② Another factor which should be taken into account is that, in sports, we could learn to communicate and cooperate with others, which plays an elementary role in individual overall development. (体育运动不仅能释放压力还能培养我们的沟通协作能力。) Virtually, success depends not only on intelligence quotient developed by studying in daytime, but also on emotion quotient that can be improved in sports. (一个人的成功不仅取决于日常学习提升的智商，还取决于情商，而体育运动可以提升个人的情商。)+具体论证
③ Admittedly, it is justifiable to reckon that doing a part-time job or playing a musical instrument is also a good way to spend our free time at night. (这一段是让步段，简要表明其他两种选择也有一定的好处，但要把重点放在解释体育运动是最好方式的观点上)。
4. A/D To remain happy and optimistic when you fail is more important than achieving success.
① Modern society places a lot of emphasis on success. Though success is clearly desirable, I think our intense focus on success is unhealthy and counterproductive. People would be better served by learning how to adopt a positive attitude towards failure.
② First of all, this would allow them to live more fulfilling lives. Studies have shown that the fulfillment brought by success is very fleeting. While you may feel great for a little while after, your mood will quickly drop back to normal levels. The road to success is paved with setbacks; even if you do eventually achieve your goals, if you are unable to experience the failures positively, you will have actually experienced a net decrease in happiness. It is thus important to remain happy and optimistic through failure, because while failure comes inevitably and often, success does not.
③ Second of all, focusing too much on success will hurt your relationships with others, whereas learning to enjoy failure will actually improve your relationships with others. This is particularly true of working in a team. For one class project, I had to work in a team led by someone who only cared about success. We didn’t pursue any unusual ideas, and mistakes were criticized harshly. The team did fairly well, but by the end everybody hated working on the assignment. The leader’s attitude rubbed off on all of us: Nobody wanted to take risks, and setbacks weighed heavy on all of us. This was in contrast to my friend’s group, which had a much more open-minded leader. She encouraged the team to test unconventional ideas, and any time they hit a roadblock, they took it as an opportunity to rethink their approach. After the project was over they all remained friends, and they even received a better grade than us.
④This leads me to my final point: enjoying failure and de-emphasizing success will paradoxically make you more apt to succeed. This is because success hinges on consistent progress, and consistent progress can only come from continuously challenging your abilities and risking failure. Michael Jordan once said that his success came from failing over and over—that he had missed thousands of shots on his path to greatness. He was able to get better because he was eager to see where his deficiencies lay and figure out how to address them. This is the common thread we see in all successful people: they are all happy to fail, because failures open up opportunities for improvement.
⑤ Most people fail more often than they succeed. Thus, in order to live a fulfilling life, we should learn to approach failure positively. This will not only improve our relationships, but also make success more likely.
5. High school teachers (teachers of students ages 14-18) spend most of class time lecturing (speaking) while the students listen and take notes. Other high school teachers spend most of class time on discussion and projects that students are highly involved in and exchange their ideas. Which of these two approaches do you think is more effective for student learning and why?
解题思路：spend most of class time on discussion and projects that students are highly involved in and exchange their ideas
有利于培养学生的创造性(cultivate creativity)。因为在小组讨论中，学生只能依靠自己和同学的知识、经验去解决问题，而不是依靠老师给予的建议，可以让孩子提出一些有创造力的解决方案(come up with innovative solutions)。对比论证：然而，如果学生知识一味地听课和记笔记，填压式的教育(force-feed education)会让孩子死记硬背(learn things by rote)，扼杀(stifle)她们的想象力和创造力。
讨论学习的方式可以让孩子更有动力去获取知识(be motivated to acquire knowledge)。因为和同龄人(peers)一起讨论、合作去解决问题会让学生觉得很轻松愉快，同学之间也可以相互鼓励学习，从而提升了同学们学习的士气(lift morale)举例论证
让步段 ：确实，听老师上课和记笔记能让学生再学习上更专注，也能在短时间内获得准确的知识。但是，长时间的听课和记笔记会让学生失去思考能力，扼杀他们的想象力、创造力;除此之外，长时间的听课和记笔记会让学生感到疲惫，打压学生学习的积极性(sap one’s enthusiasm)
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