1. What is the lecture mainly about?
A. The evolution of Vermeer's painting style
B. Ways that Vermeer's use of models influenced later Dutch painters
C. Efforts to establish the date of one of Vermeer's paintings
D. The enduring appeal of one of Vermeer's paintings
2. According to the professor, how do portraits differ from tronies?
A. In portraits, the head and shoulders are facing the same direction.
B. In portraits, the subject is intended to represent a specific person.
C. In portraits, a larger proportion of the subject's body is included in the painting.
D. In portraits, the overall dimensions of the painting are larger.
3. Why does the professor describe ways in which light is depicted in Girl with a Pearl Earring?
A. To make a point about the quality of paint used by Vermeer
B. To imply that Vermeer's style was in transition when the painting was made
C. To point out the precision of Vermeer's observations
D. To give an example of Vermeer's masterful painting technique
4. Why does a student mention the Mona Lisa?
A. To suggest that it might have influenced Vermeer's painting of Girl with a Pearl Earring
B. To point out a similarity in the expressions of Vermeer's model and the woman in the Mona Lisa
C. To ask for clarification about the methods used to assign time periods to undated paintings
D. To question why Girl with a Pearl Earring has not yet been analyzed by a computer
5. According to the professor, what aspect of Girl with a Pearl Earring appealed to the creators of the novel and the opera?
A. Its similarity to other paintings that have inspired writers and composers
B. Its history of ownership by a series of well-known art collectors
C. The way it allowed them to invent a story about the subject of the painting
D. The culture represented by the clothing and jewelry depicted in the painting
6. The professor describes how scholars estimated the date that Girl with a Pearl Earring was painted. What is his opinion of this estimate?
A. It is not fully convincing because it is based on subjective impressions.
B. It relies too heavily on the date that the painting was first sold.
C. It should have taken into account the ages of all of Vermeer's children.
D. Scholars should have agreed on specific dates before making their estimate public.
T1：When going on vacations, some people prefer to go camping in tents, others prefer to stay in hotels. Which do you think is better?
T2：Some people think that money and power are the symbol of success. Do you agree or disagree? Please include specific examples and details in your expanation.
T1：Some people prefer to prepare meals at home; others like to eat out in restaurants. Which do you prefer?
T2：Some people enjoy taking risk and trying new things, others are not adventurous,they are cautious and prefer to avoid danger. Which behavior do you think is better? Explain why.
The study of cells-cell biology-began in 1660, when English physicist Robert Hooke melted strands of spun glass to create lenses that he focused on bee stingers, fish scales, fly legs, feathers, and any type of insect he could hold still. When he looked at cork, which is the bark from a type of oak tree, it appeared to be divided into little boxes, which were remnants of cells that
were once alive. Hooke called these units “cells” because they looked like the cubicles (cellae) where monks studied and prayed. Although Hooke did not realize the significance of his observation, he was the first person to see the outlines of cells.
In 1673, Antony van Leeuwenhoek of Holland improved lenses further. He used only a single lens, but due to its quality, it was more effective at magnifying and produced a clearer image than most two-lens microscopes then available. One of his first objects of study was tartar scraped from his own teeth, and he observed that it contained many very small animalcules (microscopic organisms). Over the next few years, Leeuwenhoek built more than 500 microscopes that opened a vast new world to the human eye and mind. He viewed bacteria and other microorganisms-life that people had not known existed. However, he failed to see the single-celled “animalcules” reproduce, and therefore he perpetuated the popular idea at the time that life arises from the nonliving or from nothing. Nevertheless, he described with remarkable accuracy microorganisms
and microscopic parts of larger organisms, including human red blood cells.
Despite the accumulation of microscopists’ drawings of cells made during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the cell theory -the idea that the cell is the fundamental unit of all life-did not emerge until the nineteenth century. Historians attribute the delay to poor technology-for example,
crude microscopes and a lack of procedures to preserve and study living cells without damaging them. Neither the evidence itself nor early interpretations of it suggested that all organisms were composed of cells. Hooke had not observed actual cells but rather what they had left behind: the cell walls. Leeuwenhoek made important observations, but he did not methodically describe or categorize
the structures that cells had in common.
In the nineteenth century, more powerful microscopes, with better magnification and illumination,revealed details of life at the subcellular level. In the early 1830s, Scottish surgeon Robert Brown noted a roughly circular structure in cells from orchid plants. Finding the structure in every orchid cell, he then identified it in all cells from a variety of other organisms. He named it the “nucleus,”a term that had remained in use. Brown memorialized the importance of the structure he discovered, but today we know the nucleus houses DNA for complex cells.
The cell theory finally emerged in 1839 when German biologists Matthias J. Schleiden and Theodore Schwann made careful comparisons of plants and animals. Schleiden first noted that cells were the basic units of plants, and then Schwann compared animal cells to plant cells. After observing many different plant and animal cells, they concluded that cells were “elementary particles of organisms, the unit of structure and function.” Schleiden and Schwann described the components of the cell as a cell body and nucleus contained within a surrounding membrane. Schleiden called a cell a “peculiar little organism” and realized that a cell can be a living entity on its own; but the new theory also recognized that in large plants and animals, cells are part of a larger living organism.
Many cell biologists extended Schleiden and Schwann’s observations and ideas. German physiologist Rudolph Virchow added the important corollary in 1855 that all cells come from preexisting cells, contradicting the still-popular idea that life can arise from the nonliving or from nothingness. Virchow’s statement also challenged the popular concept that cells develop on their own
from the inside out, the nucleus forming a cell body around itself, and then the cell body growing a cell membrane. Virchow’s observation set the stage for descriptions of cell division in the 1870s and 1880s. Virchow was ahead of his time because he hypothesized that abnormal cells cause diseases that affect the whole body.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The government is not educating people enough about the importance of living a balanced and healthy life style.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers were more appreciated and valued by the society in the past than they are now.
The community you live in is planning on setting up new facilities, which of the following do you think would benefit the community most and why?1.a shopping mall 2.an art center 3.a hotel
近期热搜：托福和雅思的区别 托福听力加试 托福口语评分标准 托福写作模板 托福相当于英语几级 小托福 托福考试时间多长 托福考位 托福成绩 托福考试内容 托福封闭培训 托福听力技巧 考托福有什么要求 托福有效期 托福词汇 托福口语模板 托福报名