托福独立口语题目：Some college students like to spend their free time studying another course or doing schoolwork. Others like to join a club and enjoy social activities. Which way do you think is better and why?
托福独立口语思路：I would choose to join a club and enjoy club activities for the following reasons
To begin with, we can often find these link-minded people who share our interest and make friends with them in the activities
Also, club activities provide us with relaxing environment and warm-up exercises
In addition, joining club activities establishes a platform on which we can present our ability and improve our confidence.
托福独立口语范文：Compared with continuously study, I would choose to join a club and enjoy club activities for the following reasons. To begin with, we can often find these link-minded people who share our interest and make friends with them in the activities. For instance, I once attended a Manga club and in this club, I made acquaintance with lots of people with similar interests including my best friend Jerry. Also, club activities provide us with relaxing environment and warm-up exercises, which is conducive to releasing our pressure. In addition, joining club activities establishes a platform on which we can present our ability and improve our confidence.
1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?
A. To describe the potential impact that faster computers could have
B. To explain a specific approach to computer design and technology
C. To describe different functions computers can perform for their users
D. To explain Leonardo da Vinci's role in the history of computer design
2. Why does the professor discuss Leonardo da Vinci's work?
A. To explain the origin of the idea of old computing
B. To compare it to the work of other early inventors
C. To illustrate that some ideas in science were first suggested in works
D. To help explain the fundamental idea behind new computing
3、According to the professor, how is old computing different from new computing?
A. Old computing cannot be used to create complex programs.
B. Old computing tries to accommodate more types of users.
C. Old computing concentrates less on the needs of users.
D. Old computing focuses less on making fast computers.
4. According to the professor, what is an important step for developers to take in designing easy-to-use computers?
A. Determining the reasons that some computers are slow
B. Becoming familiar with the design of currently existing computers
C. Testing the new design for its compatibility with older systems
D. Getting information from potential users early in the design process
5. What is the professor's opinion about the goals of old computing?
A. They probably will not help designers solve modern problems.
B. They are important for disciplines other than computer science.
C. They are still relevant to designers developing new products.
D. They are not compatible with the goals of new computing.
6. Why does the professor mention how well-informed people are about medical issues today?
A. To illustrate how current technology can succeed in supporting human activities
B. To contrast people's medical knowledge today with that of people in da Vinci's time
C. To support a claim about the limitations of new computing
D. To question whether people use computers appropriately
The study of cells--cell biology--began in 1660, when English physicist Robert Hooke melted strands of spun glass to create lenses that he focused on bee stingers, fish scales, fly legs,feathers, and any type of insect he could hold still. When he looked at cork, which is the bark from a type of oak tree, it appeared to be divided into little boxes, which were remnants of cells that
were once alive. Hooke called these units “cells” because they looked like the cubicles (cellae) where monks studied and prayed. Although Hooke did not realize the significance of his observation, he was the first person to see the outlines of cells.
In 1673, Antony van Leeuwenhoek of Holland improved lenses further. He used only a single lens, but due to its quality, it was more effective at magnifying and produced a clearer image than most two-lens microscopes then available. One of his first objects of study was tartar scraped from his own teeth, and he observed that it contained many very small animalcules (microscopic organisms). Over the next few years, Leeuwenhoek built more than 500 microscopes that opened a vast new world to the human eye and mind. He viewed bacteria and other microorganisms--life that people had not known existed. However, he failed to see the single-celled “animalcules” reproduce, and therefore he perpetuated the popular idea at the time that life arises from the nonliving or from nothing. Nevertheless, he described with remarkable accuracy microorganisms and microscopic parts of larger organisms, including human red blood cells. Despite the accumulation of microscopists’ drawings of cells made during the eventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the cell theory --the idea that the cell is the fundamental unit of all life--did not emerge until the nineteenth century. Historians attribute the delay to poor technology--for example, crude microscopes and a lack of procedures to preserve and study living cells without damaging them. Neither the evidence itself nor early interpretations of it suggested that all organisms were composed of cells. Hooke had not observed actual cells but rather what they had left behind: the cell walls. Leeuwenhoek made important observations, but he did not methodically describe or categorize
the structures that cells had in common.
In the nineteenth century, more powerful microscopes, with better magnification and illumination, revealed details of life at the subcellular level. In the early 1830s, Scottish surgeon Robert Brown noted a roughly circular structure in cells from orchid plants. Finding the structure in every orchid cell, he then identified it in all cells from a variety of other organisms. He named it the “nucleus,”a term that had remained in use. Brown memorialized the importance of the structure he discovered, but today we know the nucleus houses DNA for complex cells.
The cell theory finally emerged in 1839 when German biologists Matthias J. Schleiden and Theodore Schwann made careful comparisons of plants and animals. Schleiden first noted that cells were the basic units of plants, and then Schwann compared animal cells to plant cells. After observing many different plant and animal cells, they concluded that cells were “elementary particles of organisms, the unit of structure and function.” Schleiden and Schwann described the components of the cell as a cell body and nucleus contained within a surrounding membrane. Schleiden called a cell a “peculiar little organism” and realized that a cell can be a living entity on its own; but the new theory also recognized that in large plants and animals, cells are part of a larger living organism. Many cell biologists extended Schleiden and Schwann’s observations and ideas. German physiologist Rudolph Virchow added the important corollary in 1855 that all cells come from preexisting cells, contradicting the still-popular idea that life can arise from the nonliving or from nothingness. Virchow’s statement also challenged the popular concept that cells develop on their own from the inside out, the nucleus forming a cell body around itself, and then the cell body growing a cell membrane. Virchow’s observation set the stage for descriptions of cell division in the 1870s and 1880s. Virchow was ahead of his time because he hypothesized that abnormal cells cause diseases that affect the whole body.
According to paragraph 2, which of the following did Antony van Leeuwenhoek NOT do?
A. observe bacteria
B. watch single-celled organisms reproduce
C. feel individual cells of larger organisms
D. inspect materials scraped from his teeth under a lens
Which of the following statements about microscopes is supported by the information presented in paragraph 2?
A. two-lens microscopes were not available in Holland in Leeuwenhoek's time
B. Leeuwenhoek preferred two-lens microscopes to one-lens microscopes C. The quality of Leeuwenhoek's microscope was better than that of most two-lens microscopes available in 1673
D. two-lens microscopes were invented by Leeuwenhoek Why does the author state that "Leeuwenhoek failed to see the single-celled “animalcules” reproduce”?
A. to argue that Leeuwenhoek intentionally ignored some of what he saw with his microscope
B. to suggest that Leeuwenhoek was not as important a researcher as he has traditionally been considered
C. to explain why Leeuwenhoek did not challenge the idea that life could emerge from nonliving material
D. to contrast Leeuwenhoek's observations with those of earlier researchers
Society & Relationship
1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
The rules that the whole society today expects young people to follow and obey are too strict.
2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Improving school is the most important factor of the successful development of a country.
3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
People care more about public recognition than about money. Even if no more money is given, public recognition can still make people work harder.
4. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
In the past, people were more interested in improving their neighborhoods than they are today.
5. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
People with different interests and personalities cannot be friends.
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